3289 words · 16 min read

Note: All figures are taken from the book.

## ch01: Introduction

```
~/Dropbox/public/img/ss-23.png
ontology logs: ologs
to give structure to the kinds of ideas that are often communicated in graphics
it encompasses a database schema
category theory
communication of ideas between different fields in mathematics
different branches can be formalized into categories
categories are connected by functors
transfer of proofs
theorems proven in one category
transferred through a functor to yield proofs in another category
functor is like
conductor of mathematical truth
use in scientific models
study of basic building blocks
certain structures show up again and again
vector spaces
also hierarchies, daat models, self-similarity
```

### 1.1 A brief history of category theory

```
invented in early 40s by Samuel Eilenberg and Saunders Mac Lane
to bridge topology and algebra
there were already links (such as cohomology theory)
but they compared different links with one another precisely
first: extract fundamental nature of these two fields
ideas fit to other mathematical disciplines as well
first use: clarifying lanugage for existing mathematical ideas
1957 Grothendieck used it to build new mathematical fields: new cohomology theories
that made insight into behavior of algebraic equations
Bull Lawvere: foundation for all mathematical thought
19th century: foundation was set theory
Lawvere showed category of sets is one category but not the center of mathematical universe
1980 Joachim Lambek: types and programs form a specific kind of category
new semantics on how programs combine to create other programs
Eugenio Moggi: brought monads into programming
Daniel Kan, Andre Joyal
language of choice for algebra
main use: bridge
```

### 1.2 Intention of this book

```
applied mathematics is much smaller than
applicable mathematics
abstract conceps can be communicated to scientists
journals: substantial experties
it is impossible to read a methods section and repeat the experiment
first goal: reusable methodologies can be formalized
ct is incredibly efficient
as a language for experimental design patterns
researches has ability to think about models that is impossible without it
forces a person to clarify her assumptions
value: conceptual chaos is a major problem
creativity demands clarity of thinking
how pieces fit together
```

### 1.3 What is requested from the student

```
only way to learn mathematics: doing exercises
```

### 1.4 Category theory references

```
most books: for mathematicians or computer scientists
```

## ch02 The Category of Sets

```
theory of sets
invented as a foundation for all mathematics
serves as a basis to build intuition about categories
this chapter
sets, functions, commutative diagrams
ologs
category of sets: Set
```

### 2.1 Sets and functions

```
[a thing] is put into -> [a bin]
```

#### 2.1.1 Sets

```
a set X: a collection of elements x ∈ X
we can tell if x = x' or not
notation 2.1.1.1. symbol ∅ denotes set with no elements, also {}
N: natural numbers
Z: natural numbers annd their negatives
if A and B are sets
we say A is a subset of B, also A ⊆ B
if every element of A is an element of B
for any set A
∅ ⊆ A and A ⊆ A
set-builder notation to denote subsets
ex: set of even integers: {n ∈ Z| n is even}
ex: set of integers greater than 2:
{n ∈ Z | n > 2}
symbol ∃: there exists
ex: set of even integers
{n ∈ Z | n is even} = {n ∈ Z | ∃ m ∈ Z st 2m = n}
symbol ∃!: there exists a unique
symbol ∀: for all
colon equals notation ":=": define x to be y
```

#### 2.1.2 Functions

```
if X and Y are sets
then a function f from X to Y
denoted f:X->Y
is a mapping that sends each element x ∈ X to an element of Y denoted f(x) ∈ Y
X: domain of function f
Y: codomain of f
slogan 2.1.2.1
given a function f: X -> Y
we say:
X: a set of things
Y: a set of bins
function tells us in which bin to put each thing
ex 2.1.2.4:
suppose
X is a set
X' ⊆ X is a subset
consider function: X' -> X
given by sending every element of X' to itself
notation:
i:X'⊆ X
i is the name of the associated function
image of f:
given f:X->Y
elements of Y that have at least one arrow pointing to them: are in the image of f
im(f) := {y∈Y| ∃ x ∈ X st f(x) = y}
image of f is always a subset of its codomain
im(f) ⊆ Y
composable:
given:
f: X -> Y
g: Y -> Z
ie: codomain of f is domain of g
then: f and g are composable
[X] f-> [Y] g-> [Z]
denoted:
composition of f and g
g · f: X -> Z
image of set A:
if A ⊆ X
then: i: A -> X
given f: X -> Y
then: we can compose
[A] i-> [X] f-> [Y]
f · i: A -> Y
image of this function is denoted
f(A) := im(f·i)
notation 2.1.2.9: represents
let
X be a set
x ∈ X an element
there is a function {😃 } -> X
that sends 😃 → x
say:
this function represents x ∈ X
denote:
x: {😃 } -> X
ex 2.1.2.10
let
X a set
x ∈ X an element
x:{😃 } -> X function representing it
given f:X->Y
what is f·x?
function {😃 } -> Y
that sends 😃 to f(x)
it represents the element f(x)
Remark 2.1.2.11
g·f(a) means g(f(a))
do g to whatever results from doing f to a
diagrammatic order:
another way to write composition
f;g: A -> C
means: "do f, then do g"
given an element a ∈ A
represented by a:{😃 } -> A
we have an element:
a;f;g
Hom_{Set}(X,Y)
let: X,Y sets
set of functions X->Y
denoted as: Hom_{Set}(X,Y)
note:
two functions f,g:X->Y are equal
iff ∀ x ∈ X, f(x) = g(x)
ex 2.1.2.12
let A = {1,2,3}, B = {x,y}
how many elements does Hom_{Set}(A,B) have?
identity function on X
id_X: X -> X
st ∀ x ∈ X, id_X(x) = x
definition 2.1.2.14: isomorphism
let X, Y be sets
function f:X->Y is an isomorphism
denoted [f:X] ≅-> [Y]
if ∃ g:Y->X st.
g·f = id_X and f·g = id_Y
we also say
f is invertible
g is the inverse of f
X and Y are isomorphic sets
X ≅ Y
one-to-one correspondence
application 2.1.2.16
isomorphism between Nuc_{DNA} nucleotides in DNA and Nuc_{RNA} nucleotides in RNA
boths sets have 4 elements
so there are 24 different isomorphisms
only one is useful in biology
another isomorphism: Nuc_{DNA} ≅ {A,C,G,T} and Nuc_{RNA} ≅ {A,C,G,U}
so we can use those letters as short form for nucleotides
convenient isomorphism [Nuc_{DNA}] ≅-> [Nuc_{RNA}] is given by RNA transcription:
A→U, C→G, G→C, T→A
another isomorphism: [Nuc_{DNA}] ≅-> [Nuc_{DNA}] the matching in double helix, given by:
A→T, C→G, G→C, T→A
protein production:
a function from the set of 3-nucleotide sequences to the set of amino acids
it cannot be isomorphism because
4^3=64 triplets of RNA nucleotides
but only 21 eukaryotic amino acids
proposition 2.1.2.18
1. any set A is isomorphic to itself
2. if A is isomorphic to B, then B is isomorphic to A
3. if A ≅ B and B ≅ C, then A ≅ C
ex 2.1.2.19
even if two sets are isomorphic, they cannot be treated as the same
to be treated as same,
we need to have in hand a specified isomorphism
ex 2.1.2.20
find A st for any set X, there is an isomorphism of sets
X ≅ Hom_{Set}(A,X)
notation 2.1.2.21
∀ n ∈ N, define a set ṉ := {1,2,3,...,n}
ṉ the numeral set of size n
ex:
2_ = {1,2}, 1_ = {1}, 0_ = ∅
let A be any set
function f:ṉ->A can be written as a length n sequence:
f = (f(1),f(2),...f(n))
called: sequence notation for f
ex 2.1.2.22
a. A = {a,b,c 2017-01-28}.
if f:10_->A is in sequence notation as (a,b,c,c,b,a,d,d,a,b)
what is f(4)?
definition 2.1.2.23: cardinality of finite sets
A a set. n ∈ N
A has cardinality n
denoted
|A| = n
if there exists an isomorphism of sets A ≅ ṉ
if A has cardinality n, then A is finite
other wise A is infinite
we write |A| ≥ ∞
proposition 2.1.2.25
if there is an isomorphism of sets f:A->B
then |A| = |B|
```

### 2.2 Commutative diagrams

```
ex:
[A] f-> [B]
[A] h-> [C]
[B] g-> [C]
we say:
a diagram of sets if A,B,C is a set and each of f,g,h is a function
this diagram commutes if g·f=h
we refer to it as a commutative triangle of sets, or as a commutative diagram of sets
application 2.2.1.1
biology:
function from DNA to RNA
function from RNA to amino acids
we say: translation from DNA to amino acids
following commutative diagram is this fact:
[DNA] -> [RNA]
[RNA] -> [AA]
[DNA] -> [AA]
consider:
[A] f-> [B]
[A] h-> [C]
[B] g-> [D]
[C] i-> [D]
we say:
diagram of sets if
each A,B,C,D is a set
each f,g,h,i is a function
this diagram commutes if
g·f = i·h
then we refer: commutative square of sets
or commutative diagram of sets
application 2.2.1.2
given a system S
there are two mathematical approaches:
f:S->A
g:S->B
either results in a prediction:
f':A->P
g':B->P
diagram commutes = both approaches give the same result
```

### 2.3 Ologs

```
ologs
serve as a bridge between mathematics and various conceptual landscapes
ex:
[A| arginine] is-> [D| an amino acid found in dairy]
[A] has -> [E| an electrically charged side chain]
[D] is -> [X| an amino acid]
[A] is -> [X]
[E] is -> [R| a side chain]
[X] has -> [R]
[X] has -> [N| an amine group]
[X] has -> [C| a carboxylic acid]
```

#### 2.3.1 Types

```
type: an abstract concept
represented as a box
containing a singular indefinite noun phrase
[a man]
[an automobile]
[a pair (a,w) where w is a woman and a is an automobile]
each box represents a type of thing
label on that box: each example of that class
thus: [a man] is not a single man, but the set of men. each example of which is called [a man]
```

##### 2.3.1.1 Types with compound structures

```
compound structures: composed of smaller units
ex
[a man and a woman]
[a food portion f and a child c such that c ate all of f]
good practice to declare variables in a compound type
ex
[a man and a woman]
[a pair (m), where m is a man and w is a woman]
rules of good practice 2.3.1.2
a type is presented as a text box
text should
begin with word "a"
refer to a distinction made by the author
refer to a distinction for which instances can be documented
use common name for each instance
declare all variables in compound structures
nicknames:
[Steve] stands as a nickname for [a thing classified as Steve]
[arginine] for [a molecule of arginine]
```

#### 2.3.2 Aspects

```
aspect of a thing x
a particular way in which x can be regarded
ex
a woman can be regarded as a person
being a person is an aspect
[a woman] is-> [a person]
a molecule has a molecular mass
having a molecular mass is an aspect
[a molecule] has a molecular mass-> [a positive real number]
aspect: means function
f:A->B
domain A: the thing we are measuring
codomain B: set of possible answers of the measurement
ex
[a woman] is-> [a person]
domain: set of women (3 billion elements)
codomain: set of persons (6 bil elements)
no woman points to two different people nor to zero people
so this is a function
ex
[a molecule] has a molecular mass-> [a positive real number]
domain: set of molecules
codomain: positive real numbers
for each molecule: there is a corresponding positive real number
no molecule has two different masses, nor no mass
```

##### 2.3.2.1 Invalid aspects

```
to be valid: aspect must be a functional relationship
ex:
[a person] has-> [a child]
a person may have no children, or multiple children. hence not a function
```

##### 2.3.2.4 Reading aspects and paths as English phrases

```
each arrow (aspect) [X] f-> [Y]
read by order:
ex: [a book] has as first author -> [a perso]
a book has as first author a person
remark 2.3.2.5
[a book] has as author -> [a person]
not valid
because it is not functional
if it is obvious, you can drop labels on arrows
ex:
[A| a pair (x,y) where x and y are integers] x -> [B| an integer]
[A] y -> [B'| an integer]
label x is as a nickname for the full name "yields as the value of x"
opt: use "which" before each arrow label
```

##### 2.3.2.6 Converting nonfunctional relationships to aspects

```
ex:
[a person] owns -> [a car]
invalid
valid form:
[A| a pair (p,c), where p is a person, c is a car, and p owns c] p -> [a person]
[A] c -> [a car]
```

#### 2.3.3 Facts

```
fact: path equivalences in an olog
this is what makes category theory so powerful
path in an olog: head-to-tail sequence of arrows
number of arrows: length of the path
B0: source
Bn: target
two paths are equivalent:
triangle in olog commutes
A -> B -> C
A -> C
commutative diagrams
ex:
[A| a person] has as parents -> [B| a pair (w,m), w: woman, m: man]
[B] yields as w -> [C| a woman]
[A] has as mother -> [C]
notation: a diagram commutes:
A[f,g] ≅ A[h,i]
means:
starting from A,
doing f, then g
is equivalent to
doing h, then i
ex:
[A| a DNA sequence] is transcribed to -> [B| an RNA sequence]
[B] is translated to -> [C| a protein]
[A] codes for -> [C]
ex 2.3.3.1:
[a child] has -> [a mother]
[a mother] is -> [a person]
[a child] is -> [a person]
this triangle doesn't commute
if they would, we would say: "a child and its mother are the same person"
ex 2.3.3.2:
[a person] has as father -> [a man]
[a man] lives in -> [a city]
[a person] lives in -> [a city]
noncommuting diagram
```

##### 2.3.3.4 A formula for writing facts as English

```
paths: P, Q
ex 2.3.3.5:
consider olog
[A|a person]
[B| an address]
[C| a city]
[A] has -> [B]
[B] is in -> [C]
[A] lives in -> [C]
to put this diagram commutes into English:
two paths:
F="a person has an address which is in a city"
G="a person lives in a city"
source of both: s="a person"
target of both: t="a city"
write:
given x, a person, consider the following.
We know that x is a person,
who has an address, which is in a city,
that we call P(x).
We also know that x is a person,
who lives in a city
that we call Q(x).
Fact: Whenever x is a person, we will have P(x) = Q(x).
more concisely:
A person x has an address, which is in a city, and this is the city x lives in.
general:
paths: P,Q
P: [a0=s] f1-> [a1] f2-> [a2] ... fm -> [am=t]
Q: [b0=s] g1-> [b1] g2-> [b2] ... gm -> [bm=t]
every part l (ie. every box and every arrow) has an English phrase
denoted: <<l>>
englished as:
Given x,<<s>> consider the following.
We know that x is <<s>>,
which <<f1>><<a1>>, which <<f2>><<a2>>,..., which <<fm>><<t>>,
that we call P(x).
We also know that x is <<s>>,
which <<g1>><<b1>>, which <<g2>><<b2>>,..., which <<gm>><<t>>,
that we call Q(x).
Fact: Whenever x is <<s>>, we will have P(x)=Q(x).
ex 2.3.3.6:
olog
[OLP| an operational landline phone]
[N| a phone number]
[C| an area code]
[P| a physical phone]
[R| a region]
[OLP] is assigned -> [N]
[N] has -> [C]
[C] corresponds to -> [R]
[OLP] is -> [P]
[P] is currently located in -> [R]
short form:
[OLP] is assigned -> [N] has -> [C] corresponds to -> [R]
[OLP] is -> [P] is currently located in -> [R]
```

##### 2.3.3.8 Images

```
ex:
set of mothers is the image of the "has as mother" function
[P|a person]
[P'|a person]
[M|a mother]
[P] has as mother -> [P']
[P] has -> [M] is -> [P']
```

## ch03: Fundamental Considerations in Set

### 3.1 Products and coproducts

#### 3.1.1 Products

```
definition 3.1.1.1
product of X and Y
denoted X ⨯ Y
is set of ordered pairs (x,y), x ∈ X and y ∈ Y
X ⨯ Y = {(x,y)| x ∈ X, y ∈ Y}
there are two natural projection functions:
π1: X ⨯ Y -> X
π2: X ⨯ Y -> Y
olog
[X⨯Y] π1 -> [X]
[X⨯Y] π2 -> [Y]
ex 3.1.1.8:
let
+: Z ⨯ Z -> Z addition function
·: Z ⨯ Z -> Z multiplication function
```

##### 3.1.1.9 Universal property for products

```
proposition 3.1.1.10
/Users/mertnuhoglu/Dropbox/public/img/ss-25.png
for f:A->X and g:A->Y
∃ a unique function A -> X ⨯ Y
st the following diagram commutes:
[X ⨯ Y] π1 -> [X]
[X ⨯ Y] π2 -> [Y]
[A] f -> [X]
[A] g -> [Y]
[A] <f,g> -> [X ⨯ Y]
we say:
this function is induced by f and g
denoted:
<f,g>: A -> X ⨯ Y
<f,g>(a) = (f(a),g(a))
that is:
π1 · <f,g> = f
π2 · <f,g> = g
<f,g> is the only function for which this is so
ex 3.1.1.13
for every set A there is some relationship between the following three sets:
Hom_{Set}(A,X)
Hom_{Set}(A,Y)
Hom_{Set}(A,X⨯Y)
solution
there is an isomorphism
Hom_{Set}(A,X⨯Y) ≅ -> Hom_{Set}(A,X) ⨯ Hom_{Set}(A,Y)
ex
height function: from set P of people to Z of integers
name function: from P to S of strings
so, we have
an element of Hom_{Set}(P,Z) and
an element of Hom_{Set}(P,S)
from this we get an element of:
Hom_{Set}(P,Z) ⨯ Hom_{Set}(P,S)
ie: two pieces of information combined
we pack height and name into a single datum
ie. an element of Z ⨯ S
ex 3.1.1.14
let:
π1: X ⨯ Y -> X
π2: X ⨯ Y -> Y
p1: Y ⨯ X -> Y
p2: Y ⨯ X -> X
construct swap map:
s: X ⨯ Y -> Y ⨯ X
write s in terms of π, p, ·, <, >
solution:
s = <π2,π1>
```

##### 3.1.1.16 Ologging products

```
ex 3.1.1.17
```

#### 3.1.2 Coproducts

```
definition 3.1.2.1
coproduct of X and Y
denoted X ▄ Y
is defined as disjoint union of X and Y
ie. the set for which an element is either from X or Y
two natural inclusion functions:
i1: X -> X ▄ Y
i2: Y -> X ▄ Y
ex 3.1.2.2
coproduct of X := {a,b,c} and Y := {1,2}
X ▄ Y ≅ {a,b,c,1,2}
coproduct of X and itself
X ▄ X ≅ {a1,b1,c1,a2,b2,c2}
names of the elements in X ▄ Y are not important
inclusion maps i1,i2 are important
which ensure we know where each element is from
ex 3.1.2.3: Airplane seats
X: an economy-class seat in an airplane
Y: a first-class seat in an airplane
X▄Y: a seat in an airplane
[X] is -> [X▄Y]
[Y] is -> [X▄Y]
@mine
coproduct is inheritance is-a relationship
product is join table
ex 3.1.2.4
is [a phone] is coproduct of [a cell phone] and [a landline phone]?
solution
if there is no phone other than a cell phone and landline phone, yes. if not, no
ex 3.1.2.5: disjoint union of dots
/Users/mertnuhoglu/Dropbox/public/img/ss-26.png
```

##### 3.1.2.6 Universal property for coproducts

```
proposition 3.1.2.7
~/Dropbox/public/img/ss-27.png
the following diagram commutes:
X i1 -> X ▄ Y
Y i2 -> X ▄ Y
X f -> A
Y g -> A
X ▄ Y {f g -> A
this function is induced by f and g
ie. we have
{f g · i1 = f
{f g · i2 = g
slogan 3.1.2.8
any time behavior is determined by cases, there is a coproduct involved
why two-line symbol {
because this is case notation
```